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Graffiti against BC treaty process in Alert Bay, Kwakwak'awakw territory 2011.
COMMENTARY · 16th July 2012
Merv Ritchie
It was a rare opportunity to have a one on one with a Commissioner of the BC Indian Treaty process and it was revealing to say the least. Our question was very basic and we began with it when we met with BC Treaty Commissioner (BCTC) Dave Haggard face to face.

“Why isn’t there any funding provided to those who might be opposed to the treaty process?” We asked adding, “There is literally millions of dollars provided to those promoting a treaty what about providing some funding to those who wish to provide a different point of view on the issues?”

And that is when Haggard revealed his true character.

“Well that’s a pig in a poke.” he exclaimed immediately. “We are promoting a treaty. If we were selling a Chevrolet we wouldn’t tell you about Fords or other brands.”

We were a bit taken aback by this statement and explained how if we were buying a truck for our family we would like to know the good and bad of every model, “Maybe Toyota has a better transmission.” we stated.

Two others presently engaged in negotiating a Treaty with BC were observing this exchange and we continued,

“Like all governments, like the Liberals and the NDP in Victoria, they have a debate on the issues. One always takes the opposing side, but both get to present the pros and cons of every issue. This process, where the opposing side, or those opposed to treaty, don’t get any funding and are generally silenced, is not a fair process.”

Haggard didn’t want to hear any of this and began to exhibit hostility to being challenged with a reasoned argument.

“You just want to get a headline so you can sell more newspapers.” he stated.

Well we don’t sell newspapers. We investigate and report on issues we feel need to be addressed properly and in the public realm. (Newspapers today are generally distributed for free and the only manner in which revenue is achieved, to pay for the newspapers, is when a business purchases a display ad as they recognize the paper has an audience.)

Today the Tsimshian Nation is broken into various reserve communities. Kitselas and Kitsumkalum are presently attempting to complete an AIP (Agreement in Principle). The approval of such a document means the people of the reserve “principally agree” with the terms. Essentially the agreement is unalterable.

To continue with Haggard’s analogy it would be similar to standing at an Auto Dealership sales lot with a salesman. He convinces you the old car you have is outdated and does not serve your purposes. He notices you admiring a sports car and asks you what your preferred colour would be. Of course you love Candy Apple Red, so he writes that down on a draft contract. “Standard or automatic”, he asks. And it continues this way until you have detailed all the options and features. Only then gets to what you can afford for payments. Then he says, “Let me take this to my manager and I’ll see what we can do for you.” You sit and wait in apprehension wondering, “What have I just done? What have I just committed my family too?”

And that is what the AIP is, the initial contract, essentially unalterable. Imagine when the salesman returns one saying 'Actually, I decided a sports car is not quite right, and the colour is all wrong.'

A learned gentleman or woman, one with generations of education and learning, parents and grandparents with years of education and nurturing behind them, approach such situations with confidence.

Imagine a daughter, periodically tormented by her mother behind closed doors. After an outburst of violence or a particularly vicious slap, her mother cries and pleads, “I’m so sorry sweetheart, I didn’t mean it.” The girl cry’s too and in a strange sort of empathy states “I’m sorry too mommy.” As the years go by the mother and child develop a relationship of abuser and abused where the child loses the ability to understand how wrong it all is. Battered women know this all too well.

The Tsimshian, in fact all Indians of the Northwest, have been abused and battered since the 1880’s when the Nisga’a and Tsimshian high Hereditary Chiefs first went to Victoria to discuss land claims. From that first meeting they were ridiculed even though most could fully speak, read and write English.

An exchange between the government of the day and a different Wesley

Nisga’a Chiefs, Charles Barton and John Wesley went to Victoria in the winter of 1887 with Tsimshian Chiefs John Ryan and Richard Wilson. Chief Commissioner and Premier at the time, William Smithe, from the transcripts of the conversation, belittled the high Chiefs and referred to them as “being still Indians or in the position of children,” but he didn’t stop there he abused them with lies.

Wesley was negotiating for more land for the Nisga’a and referring to his high elder, Chief Mountain, stating “These are what we want and what we came for. We want you to cut out a bigger reserve for us and what we want after that is a treaty.”

Smithe had a confident Indian in front of him so he immediately employed the same style of treachery evident today with the BCTC.

“What do you mean Treaty?” asked Smithe

“I have mentioned after a certain amount of land is cut out for the Indians, outside of that we want such a law as the law of England and the Dominion Government which made a treaty with the Indians.”

“Where did you hear that?” challenged Smithe.

“It is in the law books.” responded Wesley.

“Who told you?” Smithe challenged yet again.

Wesley then had to educate Smithe on Indians and their competence. Residential schools were not required to educate Indians, only to subjugate them.

“There are a good many Indians that can read and write, and they are the ones who say this themselves.”

“And they told you this?” sneered Smithe.

“Yes,”

“Well, I should like them to produce this book that they have read this in. I have never seen that book.”

Smithe would have known about the Royal Proclamation of 1763 as he would have known about the treaties with other Indian peoples of Canada. The exchange between the Chiefs and the Government agents was intense as the Chiefs held fast to their request, First Land, then Treaty, they were not there to discuss anything else. Nisga’a Charles Barton even provided dates for the government men to attend the fishing ground when all Chiefs would be present to settle the issues.

“We have laid this before you now, and we hope, by Gods word, that you will send some of your gentlemen of the wise Government among us, sometimes, to speak with the Chiefs, who are up there now themselves in peace, that there is not to be trouble, and mix with them. The time will be the oolichan fishing season, which is from the 22nd March till about the beginning of May. That is the only time that the Indians are together on the Nass River. After then they are separated all over British Columbia, all the time.”

One hundred and twenty five years ago the Chiefs knew what they wanted and spoke about it with honesty and dignity. The government acted like a slimy used car salesman then and they continue to act the same way today. Treachery and trickery.

Petitions continued to settle the issues with letters and presentations recorded from 1908, 1909, 1913, and 1915, almost yearly but the Provincial and Federal Government then enforced the abuse of all Indian people by taking away their children, banning their own customs and laws and forbidding any fundraising or legal representation on land claims.

The residential school system was not the only abuse and does not begin to explain the suffering of the Indian peoples. Res schools is only a minor part of the dysfunction perpetrated on the Indian peoples. Those who never attended residential schools suffer as great a battering as those who attended. Today the dysfunction and abuses continue unabated. And worse still, those who were raised by the white system or those who despise their upbringing suffer the abuse on their own people.

The child wants to please their abuser, like the young daughter who tells her mother she’s sorry too. They cuddle together in their abusive co-dependency.

If the child wished to negotiate a new relationship with her mother how could she begin? What foundation does she have to understand what a normal relationship is?

The Trauma Continues

And this is the dilemma facing all Indians who are struggling to find a solution to reserves, traditional lands and treaties. Almost all are battered, abused victims from numerous dysfunctional generations of neglect, impoverishment, immorality and treachery.

Many even despise the word Indian. The previous head of the Kitselas treaty communications team equates the word Indian to “Niggar”. She stated clearly she won’t even let her children use the word Indian.

This is a clear sign of a battered person, a person unable to address the subject with reasoned detachment.

How can British Columbians accept moving forward on treaty negotiations with a people so seriously culturally damaged?

And to Dave Haggard and the entire BC Treaty Commission team, the only “Pig in a Poke” is what you are attempting to foist on an unsuspecting people.

Today young First Nations people are finally being raised by parents who have resolved their previous abusive behaviors inherited from their tormented society. There are now numerous examples of bright young men and women who have raised children in nurturing family environments where some have achieved professional degrees. Although some are embarrassed of their own people, others use their skills to help.

“Indian politics was all about Land Claims and the struggle to improve the lives of the Indian People in the communities.- My Mum told me that I must get educated and involved in order to help Our People. She Did Not say, ‘Get educated and involved in order to help yourself.’” wrote Bill Wilson from the Musgamaw/ Kwawkgewlth, “That was 60 years ago and things have obviously changed. Now Education, Involvement And Election appear to mean getting a big piece of pie for yourself!- I hear talk of the suffering of Our Peoples when more money is being asked for, yet no changes take place in the communities. - SALARIES, HONORARIUMS, EXPENSES and BIG MEETINGS do increase however.- NUTS!

“I am reminded of the wisdom of the late Chief Rod Robinson who stated , ‘I do not want my people on their knees under the white man's banquet table, begging and waiting for scraps to fall! I want my people to stand up on their own two feet, take their rightful place at the table and demand their fair share!’” continued Wilson.


In truth it has only been one generation of healing. It would be fraudulent if this BCTC style of negotiation tactics were used in the “white” corporate world. No document could be considered valid if it was signed under duress or some psychological impairment. And this is exactly what has been perpetrated on the Indian peoples of the northwest and most of BC.

As I stated at the Enbridge National Energy Board Joint Review Panel hearings on June 25, 2012 in Kitamaat Village, “Just a few short years ago, our Prime Minister, Stephen Harper, apologized for taking the families away, forbidding their culture, and has engaged in a process to - like the truth and reconciliation style of process. But what hasn’t happened is taking the time to help the culture restore their traditions, their family lines and their culture.”

A “Just Society” would put an immediate stop to the treaty process and spend the appropriate amount of time to ensure the social structure of the Northwest First Nations is restored to their previous dignity. Anything less is a crime. Dave Haggard and the BCTC team should stop applying lipstick to their “Pig” and stop poking the Indians with illegal deals.


To read more, an in-depth look at the history, and to read the transcripts of the Chiefs in Victoria in 1887, Click HERE. The transcripts are attached at the end of this linked article in chapter six.
Light and Sound Show on Parliament Hill- Taken by MLA Mable Elmore
Light and Sound Show on Parliament Hill- Taken by MLA Mable Elmore
response to article
Comment by william bouchard on 27th July 2012
Why must you be so negative toward something that concerns the better interest of our first peoples. Its papers like this that turn the " first nations" against each other. They read this and can't make an informed choice. Your articles are fueled by negativity and they lack optimism. This is by far the northwest's most opinionated paper.

Ed Note: Making an informed decision requires, by definition, information. This paper (media) is the only publication which permits all information, from all perspectives. The BCTC has already admitted they do not wish to provide all information. Black Press has also admitted they restrict, by policy, all sides of this important issue.
Option to "Inalterable" AIP
Comment by David Dickinson on 18th July 2012
Yes, the AIP creates an essentially inalterable framework agreement. Once in place, it is too late for opponents to overturn it by political means or through the courts. That leaves just one option: vote against it when it goes to plebiscite.
What the hell is "a pig in a poke?"
Comment by Janice Robinson on 18th July 2012
Seriously.

Dave Haggard is very disrespectful, in his dealings with and, dismissal of the Tsimshian Nation.

Notice: I will attend the next scheduled treaty meeting of the "Kitsumkalum First Nation," with the express desire to have "the team" explain to us their understanding of how our concerns are "a pig in a poke," seeing as they're on the same team as Dave Haggard. First Nation.......my a$$!

Canada! Treaty with the Tsimshian Nation....or don't treaty at all. Any "treaty" with little Tsimshian villages, like Kitsumkalum and Kitseles are INVALID.

And, Indians, stop robbing and pillaging our sacred territories for your own gain (logging, etc.). Shame on you. Even Mr. Ippel is on to you. Your activities are now in the light, for all to know and see (thanks to cameras and the internet). We watch over Eagle territories on behalf of ALL the people. They are all PUBLIC PROPERTY of the TSIMSHIAN.
Do your research.
Comment by Alu on 17th July 2012
Fact checking done. An easy fact is that Bill Wilson is not from the Northern Shuswap Tribal Council. He might live in the territory but so do many other native and non-native. A quick phone call to Bill corrected the information incorrectly retrieved from his public profile.

Ed Note; Bill Wilson writes,

I have never been with the Northern Shuswap Tribal Council. I live in their territory as my wife is the Chief of SoDa Creek but I am not involved with them in any way. I am a MUSGAMAW/ KWAWKGEWLTH. My Mum was from Kingcome and my Dad from Cape Mudge.

He adds; he is not involved in any manner and considers Haggard a friend. We included his comments as they speak with passion regarding the state of FN politics today.

Kitsumkalum 10 % Land Cash Grab
Comment by Kitsumkalum Member 2 on 17th July 2012
These are recent Kitsumkalum Treaty Numbers.


28.5 million dollars $

and over 111,919 acres in land.

This information came from Kitsumkalum Treaty Communications Page Face Book.

As Kitsumkalum Band Member.

The truth.....

There is one thing you learn about Barter & Trade or Sell. This is not a good deal.

As for 7 th Generation the young people with college diplomas - university degrees. Working with all the resources society provides to protect there families. You all deserve a big applause.

Let it be known that one day our youth will be challenging us. They will be examples of our story, for we provide the identity to there great success story.

Our generation knows the difference between right and wrong. We learned it.

We understand the difference between good meat and bad meat. We understand allot of how things work. We are FEARLESS!

As Tsimshian - Galsap - GitsemGallum I say this.

You going to vote for Treaty. Then do it in away were your demands are met before the vote. Ask yourself how much is it worth?

Write up your own letter. Your version.

Kitsumkalum Mountain is for sale $$. You do not see Terrace BC Mountain or Copper

Mountain have mining trucks running around there residential areas.

The Rock is being sold for 15 million cubic meter inches of pure minerals. When you do the equation 111,919 acres in land (granted).
In the treaty for return.

We are being paid peanut shells "Crushed". Compared to the loss of heritage.

God help us.

Please ASAP.
Tsimshian Chief, demands to know who is in charge Dec. 1883
Comment by Author on 16th July 2012
The Thing We Want is a Great Thing

In December, 1883, the first Indian Agent, James McKay, was sent to the Tsimshian at Port Simpson. He gave a speech to the chiefs and community members. The next evening, another meeting was held in which the chiefs responded to him. At their insistence, McKay wrote down what everyone said at the meeting. Here is a portion of what was said at the meeting in the schoolhouse on December 8, 1883.

Port Simpson BC
A meeting of the Port Simpson People, held December 8, 1883

Albert Edward Nelson (Neeshot Chief): We will answer you now what you said to us. You have said we are at peace here and not in trouble. So we are living in peace for this reason, that this Tsimpshean tribe belongs to no government. God has put us here Himself. That is why our minds are at peace, for we know God is the only one who governs us. We have heard that the government has appointed you here. You have told us yourself that the land belongs to us the Tsimpsheans. That the council will have to make a law to divide the lands; so you have said. We do not see what the council has to do this for, as the land belonged to us years ago. What the people of this place want they will let you know; what they do not want they will let you know also. Well Sir, Mr. McKay, this is all I will say. I will not trouble
you yourself. This thing we want is nor a small thing, it is a great thing.

Arthur Wellington (Clah): I want to know if you wish me to ask a question.

Mr. McKay: Yes, any question you like.

Arthur: I have been acquainted with you before this at the Hudson Bay Company. I am well assured that you are a true Christian so now I ask, what is your office, a justice of the peace, a magistrate or an Indian agent?

Mr. McKay: I am an Indian agent to attend to anything you wish to ask of the government, and I am also a magistrate.

Arthur: Who are you to help the most, the white people or the Indians?

Mr. McKay: If the Indians carry the case to the courts or any one else, I will help the Indians; if to my court I will do the best I can for both parties.

Arthur: Have you power?

Mr. McKay: I can get power. All law abiding people whom I call will help me. You do not want me to bring power [text unreadable] there are enough law abiding people here.

Arthur: Who has sent you out here, the Queen, the Government, or the Victoria Government?

Mr. McKay: I am sent by the government of Canada, not that of Victoria.

Arthur: I want to know the names of the governors.

Mr. McKay: The British Empire has a great number of people. The sun never sets on it, for it is all the world around. All this is under the Queen. It is divided into Dominions, Provinces, Colonies, etc. Canada extends from the sea on one side to these on the other. The governor General of Canada tends to the natives, not the Victoria Government.

Arthur: Are they all Christians?

Mr. McKay: Well, the ought to be. They are not all but they should be. The Queen, The
Governor General and the governors are Christians.

Arthur: Whose law is it you have brought out here: is it God's law or the Queen's?

Mr. McKay: The Queen's law is under God's law, and is based on it. The English nation is a
Christian nation and base their laws on the Bible.

Arthur: We hear you say they are not all Christians.

Mr. McKay: There are some not Christians yet, as it is here. It is a large country and all are not Christians though they ought to be.

Arthur: God has directed you here among your Christian brethren. I will tell you how Dr.
Powell and Judge O'Reilly did to us here.

Mr. McKay: I will take down everything you say.

Arthur: Did you ever see a Christian take land from another Christian and sell it, not letting [them] know anything about it? We have heard that the Queen [said] that all the people on the coast and in the interior across the Rocky mountains, are all her children. She calls them such. Is that the way a mother treats her children, takes away their land and not tell them about it? For the Queen we have heard has taken it from us; Skeena, Naas, and all around us and sold it without our knowledge. We call ourselves Christians and so have tried to wait patiently. We saw the Whites come here and survey our land and we have said nothing about it. I have read in God's book the Bible how the poor are not despised in God's sight yet, how ever great a man may be he is nothing in God's sight if he is not a Christian. But the poor if they are Christians, have mercies[?] shown them. We can do nothing against the truth, but for the truth.

From Chapter six, 'Persistance and Change', A History of the Tsimshian Nation
Gov. General Visits Prince Rupert - promises Tsimshian 1909
Comment by Author on 16th July 2012
In 1909 the Governor-General visited the new town of Prince Rupert. He met with a number of First Nations leaders. Here is a summary of his visit written by William Beynon.

Fall, 1909

This evening the committee presented an address to the Governor-General (Earl Grey) on the SS Quadra at Prince Rupert and he accepted it.

When he had accepted the address he enquired whether those present represented different tribes of Indians, then he asked us "What do your people wish," and we answered that we wished our forefathers' lands, that had been taken away from us to returned to us. The Governor-General then asked "Have your reserves been taken away from your and one of the committee said "Yes, the land has been taken away form us." The Governor-General then said, "Do you wish the Reserve taken away from you?" and the committee answered "Yes, we wish the reserve done away with, as the Government has made the reserves without our consent." Then the Governor-General answered "I have laid the matter in the hands of my ministers, and they are looking into it, and will give every consideration to all your rights that you may have." He also said "You have a lot of reserves and are only a few people and why are you not satisfied?” Then the committee answered "We understand that the reserves do not Belong to us but we want our forefathers' lands to be given back to us, and we will then start business on our own lands."

Then the Governor-General answered "I have told you three times that I have put your claims in the hands of my ministers." Then the Committee said "We are all united in asking you what we wished last summer, when we sent our representatives to Ottawa, and laid a petition in the hands of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, which was accepted by him, for this reason we come to you this evening, with the same plea as last summer." "Before God created the Indian he created the lands and then he put the Indians on the lands and that is the reason that the lands belong to the Indians from generation to generation."

"When we go home we will tell all the Chiefs what we heard from you."

Then the Governor-General answered "It will be done and you will get what you wish," and "I advise you to go and work. There is valuable land and you must go and improve."

"I am very pleased to have met the Committee and I hope you will be strong and hearty and obtain what you wish.


From Chapter six, 'Persistance and Change', A History of the Tsimshian Nation
Tsimshian petition directly to Wilfred Laurier summer 1908
Comment by Author on 16th July 2012
In the summer of 1908, a number of First Nations representatives traveled to Ottawa to present Prime Minister Wilfred Laurier petitions for recognition of Aboriginal title and redress of their Land Claims. Here are two documents from that occasion, a letter from the Tsimshian chiefs, and the official response from the Prime Minister. In his letter, Laurier, talks about His Excellency, King Edward VII. He makes it sound like the king has just stepped out for a short while. In fact, Edward VII never visited Canada during his reign.

Petition of the Zimshian Band Of Indians

To the Right Hon. Sir Wilfred Laurier, Prime Minister
And
The Department of Indian Affairs:

We, the undersigned tribe, with our Chiefs, from the Zimshean Band of Port Simpson:

We have set down this humble petition as follows:

We your humble servants wish to express our grievance to the Right Hon. Sir Wilfred Laurier, Prime Minister, and the Department of Indian Affairs.

To have pity on us — to listen to our humble pleading:
1. We beg of them to let us into possession of our forefather's land;
2. To claim it and have a right to own it;
3. To be at liberty to do or say anything over it as a free man;
4. That the law called the Indian Act to be taken away from us;
5. To be free under the Canadian and the British flag of Liberty.


Ottawa Canada
June 11th, 1908

"Sir Wilfrid Laurier's reply to the Chiefs on Presentation of the petition."

Mr. Chief Capilano and to all the Chiefs: I am very glad to see you all in here today. I regret His Excellency is not at present in the Capital. I am sure he would have been very glad to see you all. I am sure he will regret not having seen the chiefs. There are two petitions presented to me this morning, and I am pleased to receive them.

In the name of His Majesty our King, Edward VII, I have listened to your petitions. I will do my duty and have the Governor-General forward them to His Majesty King Edward VII, if His Excellency were here he would consider your petitions, but in his absence from Ottawa I can do nothing as I am only his first Minister. I regret he is not here but I will see him on his return and find out what can be done.

I hope you will be happy and arrive home safely.


From Chapter six, 'Persistance and Change', A History of the Tsimshian Nation
Port Simpson Tsimshain Ask for Land & Treay resolution 1915
Comment by Author on 16th July 2012
Here is a statement made on behalf of the Port Simpson chiefs and people to the McKenna - McBride Commission.

Port Simpson BC
April 17, 1915
Rev. Dr. Moore:

The chiefs and people of Port Simpson extend to you their welcome and wish to thank you for coming to them in order to hear their grievances which we now place before you. Our grievances are, as you are no doubt aware of, "The Land Question," which you know has been in our midst a long time.

You are aware of the fact that the lands upon which we are now asking for a recognition of our rights, which we know to be ours. These lands being our inheritance from our forefathers who in times immemorial held undisputed possession of these lands.

And in the proclamation of His Majesty, George III 1763, we have been led to believe that our rights would be protected and on this we base our claim for recognition of our rights.

We have, Dear Sir, since we have been under the British Flag we have believed that we would receive justice and fair play, but we have been more or less as slaves.

But, Dear Sir, we are still expecting justice to be given us regarding the lands of our forefathers.

These lands as you are no doubt aware of, were occupied by our forefathers who were independent thereon and from these lands they derived their livelihood; and now these lands are taken away from us, unknown (without our consent) and without compensation to us and we are as you can see robbed of our means of livelihood, and we have to stand by and see our lands taken away from us.

We ask, Dear Sir, for a return of these lands, The Land of our forefathers, which is our only inheritance.

We now ask for an indefeasible Title on, And on our lands which are now occupied and sold unknown to us on these lands we ask compensation. And on all lands which are unoccupied we ask that the Government recognize our rights and grant us on these lands a clear indefeasible title, and on these lands (viz unoccupied) we wish an offer from the Government. We will reserve the right to retain rivers and streams (noted on plan and marked "x"). The area of these lands have been more minutely described in our petition of 1908 presented to Sir Wilfrid Laurier. And also been fully explained in communcations to Lawyer Clarke in 1909. These lands have been taken away from us without our consent and we have not as yet received compensation for. We have dear Sir always gone about for justice in peacable lines, knowing what we ask was but justice in the eyes of God and man.

We beg to remain on behalf of the Tsimshian Nation


From Chapter six, 'Persistence and Change', A History of the Tsimshian Nation
Gitga'at Appeal to resolve land and Treaty issues 1913
Comment by Author on 16th July 2012
Hartley Bay, B.C.
August, 1913
Mr. Wetmore, Chairman
Indian Commissioner

Unfortunately we are not able to be all at Home here in Hartley Bay in time to meet you as our work is not yet done at the Canneries, so we decided to leave this note for you in case you visit our Village during our absence. Therefore, we hereby make the following statement in writing, which we trust you will consider carefully the same as if we had a talk with you personally.

We shall not consider or accept any offer from any one until our claim is settled by Justice. Our prayer is that our Title for our lands and unsurrendered lands be made clearer, recognized and acknowledged to us by both the Dominion and Provincial Governments, that is the vital point of our request or claim.

We have no new request or new thing to state before you, but the same old claim demanding our Title be settled by Justice.

Signed
Head Chief Ambrose Robinson
Chief Aleck Moody
Chief John Anderson
Chief Heber Clifton

The members of the Commission were a bit surprised when they arrived at Hartley Bay to find the chiefs would not speak with them. Here is their response to the above letter.

In answer to that letter in which it is stated that the Indians of this band would not accept any thing from anyone until such times as the question of the Indian title is sealed. I must say that we are not a court of justice and have no power to settle the title to the land. We have no powers whatever except those which are stated in our commission, which I will point out to you in a moment. The very commission under which we act prohibits us dealing with any question of title apart from what I have said, and if you desire to have some right declared in respect to your title you will have to go elsewhere than to this Commission, because we can only act under our commission and we can do nothing which our commission does not authorize us to do.


From Chapter six, 'Persistance and Change', A History of the Tsimshian Nation!!