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CONTRIBUTION · 3rd April 2012
Victor Nixon
How The New Smart Grid Will Affect Your Life

Source Direct

PART TWO OF TWO

5.1 There are at least six (6) emissions attributable to BPL/B-PLC:

5.1.1 BPL/B-PLC overhead power line signal leakage

5.1.2 BPL/B-PLC overhead power line signal reflection audible Standing Waves

5.1.3 BPL/B-PLC overhead power line signal audible low-frequency subharmonics

5.1.4 High-power BPL/B-PLC signal transmitter dish audible low frequency subharmonics

5.1.5 Fast-Switching Capacitor Bank (FSCB) reactance

5.1.6 The “Last Mile” BPL signal attenuation


5.1.1 BPL/B-PLC overhead power line signal leakage: Electrical Utility Companies have been able to communicate with their Grid equipment via the power lines for decades. This communication was rudimentary and relatively slow; simply a pulse, or set of pulses, to, for instance, a circuit breaker (switch) at a substation. A simple, “Are you there?” pulse along the power line and a, “Yes,” pulse response 3 times a second via a dedicated phone line hooked up to a modem. There is negligible signal loss at this communication speed, which is approximately 300 Baud (bps = bits per second).

Figure 2: Power Spectrum Scan – BPL power line emissions dB vs. frequency (Hz) plot

The implementation of 40MHz BPL/B-PLC allows for 2-way communication via the power line. No dedicated telephone line is necessary. The “Are you there?” signal cycle repetition is increased to 10 times per second.

There exists, however, many drawbacks when the carrier wave signal reaches and/or exceeds 1MHz. These include losses mainly from signal reflection, but also include losses due to line attenuation, saddle Insulators, splices, tap lines, sag and bends in the overhead cable, and even birds perching on the cables. Each incidence of signal loss is cumulative to those occurring before it.

The above is fully explained in Exhibit 1 – Power Line Carrier Channel & Application Considerations for Transmission Line Relaying. This technical document is available for download here: http://www.pulsartech.com/pulsartech/docs/C045-P0597.pdf
40MHz BPL, or any BPL achieved transmission speed, is well inside of the radio frequency (RF) domain. As such, when radiating away, emitting, from the power lines it is a RF transmission. Taking the highest and lowest peaks in Figure 2 we have 68db at 18Hz and 45dB at 6 KHz; their Mean average is 56.5dB. To convert dB to dBm (milliwatts) the mathematical formula is used: 10log10(P*(1/0.001)=(nn)dBm.

Tell-it-like-it-is: Wherever there is an overhead power line with BPL/B-PLC installed and operational an average of 318Watts of energy are constantly emitted at the RF range of 30-40MHz along its length. Generally, at frequencies
There are no references to the above as you are not supposed to have come to this realization.

The total permitted energy at ground level allowed by law from a cell phone mast is 4 watts.

5.1.2 BPL/B-PLC overhead power line signal reflection audible Standing Waves: Standing waves are a common occurrence in electrical power transmission lines, they occur when the power sine wave hits an area of high impedance (to continuing in the direction it was going) and reflects/bounces back the way it came (because it’s the easiest way to go). Traveling in the wrong direction will ultimately lead to a collision with the incoming sine waves. If the sine wave reflects/bounces back with sufficient energy (throw a ball harder and it will bounce higher) it will produce a Walking Standing Wave, a Standing Wave that moves along the power line.

“Special Considerations
When two waves, traveling in opposite directions on a transmission line pass, they create a standing wave.

An improperly terminated line will have a standing wave due to the signal being transmitted out and the reflected wave coming back. The effect of this phenomenon can be detrimental, depending on the length of the line and the relative value of the termination. At the very least, it will create signal attenuation due to the reflection.‖ – Pulsar Technologies Inc., Exhibit 1.


RF emissions due to BPL signal reflection and consequent standing wave attenuation are widespread. Up to 30dB of attenuation is possible according to Exhibit 1.

5.1.3 BPL/B-PLC overhead power line signal audible low-frequency subharmonics:

These particular component emissions are caused by the frequency “dot” overlays discussed in 3.2.2. In this example, we assume that the signal “string” comprises of 16 (hexadecimal 10) separate frequency “dots” or pulses in the waveform shape in Figure 1. Being that there are 2048 “dot” pulses this would give a total signal “string” count of 128 one after the other – A very “thick” (wide) signal waveform is produced. Adding just one more bit, 4096 “dots”, and there are 256 signal “strings”.

This waveform is a very persistent signal. Even if half of the signal were lost, -3dB point, there would still be sufficient “dots” remaining to reassemble the original waveform at the demodulation point.

Transmitting each waveform in the real-time domain at singly different ANGULAR modulation; 15º, 30º, 45º, 60º, etc. out of phase to the preceding waveform and this waveform is digitally encoded. 15 degrees out of phase = 00, 30 = 10, 45 = 01, 60 = 11, etc. You can set up a whole slew of signal “types” doing this, right up to video streams – IF YOU CAN GET IT TO GO FAST ENOUGH. That’s the key – SPEED.

But what happens when these frequencies are introduced into the power lines? The signal pulses “dots” themselves are interharmonics. An interharmonic will generate a harmonic next to it. Both collide; cancel out the difference in the frequencies EXCEPT the DIFFERENCE in their respective frequencies. This DIFFERENCE is a subharmonic and because all of the “dot” frequencies are divisors/multiples of the original frequency, 11.719Hz, there are seven (7) subharmonics that are all the SAME. 128 or 256 subharmonics overlaid on top of one another at EXACTLY the same time at 7 different LOW FREQUENCIES - 11.719, 17.578, 23.438, 29.297, 35.156, 40.016, and 46.875Hz at 60Hz mains frequency, at 50Hz it’s simply an integer division calculation of these frequencies. An already highly persistent waveform subharmonic overlaid on itself 128 or 256 times.

There is one more subharmonic that needs to be taken into consideration: Taking any BPL pulse/”dot” frequency, subtracting it from the nearest possibly occurring harmonic of the mains frequency, then subtracting the nearest of the seven (7) LF subharmonics from the result ALWAYS produces a 1.406Hz subharmonic.

Multiplying 1.406Hz by 60 (seconds) results in a pulse per minute (ppm) count, in this case 84.36. So, there is a massively powerful 2KW to >40KW pulse train occurring at 84.36 pulses per minute wherever BPL/B-PLC is operational in the overhead power lines. Human and other animals’ heartbeat rate is between 72 and 90ppm; it is a logically-derived consideration that these extremely powerful subharmonic pulses could well be the causation of Ventricular Fibrillation, a common diagnosis in Sudden Adult Death Syndrome, also referred to as Sudden Arrhythmia Death Syndrome (SADS).

First-hand reports from people around the globe tell of an omnipresent, all-pervading, and consistent-tone “White Noise” wherever BPL is operational. Referring back to the Power Spectrum Scan in Figure 2, there is a massive interharmonic spike present at approximately 91Hz. This spike would generate a subharmonic at 31Hz at 60Hz with 23% more energy than the mean average power of total BPL emissions and is the cause of this “White Noise”. There would be a comparable frequency subharmonic at 50Hz mains frequency.

All of the subharmonics between 20 and 50Hz are being generated at comparable power levels, on this particular scan, 60dB or 1 kilowatt. All of these subharmonics are regularly scanned at 80dB ~104W (observed) and above, to as high as 95dB ~40KW (observed) and above emissions levels. These power levels are as evidenced in Exhibit 23 and Figures 4 and 5.

Below 20Hz there is a massive, wide spike between 17 and 19Hz, the Infrasonic “Ghost Frequency” as detailed in line item 2.1.7. These frequencies are the largest spikes in the BPL emissions across the spectrum, around 30% above the mean average of the total BPL emissions. These are the frequencies that cause intense emotional and mental reactions in humans, leading to a plethora of physiological derogatory effects. Some of these effects are as listed in line item 2.1.7, there are many more. The above listed spectrum disruptions break every rule, regulation, and law that exists, particularly as defined in IEEE 519, and as covered in Exhibit 21 documentation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_quality There are hundreds of millions of people worldwide that hear these emissions 24/7. Sleep deprivation is the leading cause of mental and physical distress demonstrated in humans. A human being can be questioned regarding his problems as associated with these BPL emissions, an animal cannot. It would take years of medical research to prove that these emissions have and are affecting domestic and wild animal populations. However, the evidence is there and on a global scale; whole areas virtually devoid of animal wildlife; farm livestock dying in their thousands for no apparent reason. Bird populations disappearing; flocks of birds falling to the ground while in flight. Dogs, in particular, among pet animals and kennels losing the use of their back legs and dying shortly afterwards. All can be correlated to BPL equipment installation and operation.

5.1.4 High-power BPL/B-PLC signal transmitter dish audible low frequency subharmonics:

Should you live in a rural area and your electrical utility decides to install BPL/B-PLC you are very unfortunate indeed. For a BPL installation to be economically viable it has to reach a pre-calculated number of people. In a rural area to reach the same number of people that there are in a square mile of a city suburb an area with a radius of, perhaps, 25 miles would need to be covered by a comparable single BPL installation.

This is achieved, for the most part, wirelessly, utilizing BPL transmitter dish antenna(e) mounted on purpose-built masts. Generally speaking, cell phone masts are not home to BPL transmitter dishes, cell phone mast real estate enclosures, however, are. These transmitter dishes deliver their signals to wireless BPL gateways where the signal is then injected onto the power lines using a BPL/B-PLC Coupler as described in 5.1.3.

The Power Cross Spectrum scans in Figure 4 compare the BPL emission power levels across the low frequency spectrum. The scan on the left shows power line only emissions, whereas the scan on the right shows wireless transmissions adding to the power line emissions. The scan on the right shows the 10dB point at the base line of the scan; scan frequencies of both are similar. Hanning was used on the right, Blackman the left.

In a rural area where transmitter dishes are used to deliver the BPL signal to wireless gateways the resulting power line emissions levels are far higher. The scan on the left tops out at 50dB, the scan on the right tops out at >90dB. Incidences of interharmonics are similar in number, frequency position, and shape.

The reason for this increase is due to the fact that the power lines act as dipoles. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) describe any straight conductor as an antenna, a dipole. Here the power lines act as receiving antennae for the BPL wireless transmissions and add to the BPL power levels already in the power lines. Thus, more power = more emissions. The scan on the right, taken in Monterey, Massachusetts, shows an emission level of >40KW in the
5.1.5 Fast-Switching Capacitor Bank (FSCB) reactance: Generally speaking, BPL/B-PLC vendors offer data redundancy. That is, two (2) of the three (3) phases present in the overhead electricity transmission lines are used to transmit the same data, thus guaranteeing data integrity.

i. According to its vendors, BPL/B-PLC is able to be employed on overhead power lines carrying from 7.2 kilovolts (KV) to 138KV. A 3-Phase power line comprises of six (6) cables, three pairs at different heights at the top of the pole. Each pair at the same height carries a single phase or sine wave. Usually, the copper cable is the live, outbound power; the aluminum cable the return or neutral.

ii. Historically, electrical utilities have had no success in reducing Phase Imbalance in more than 50 years. Back at the generating station or directly after the transformer at a tap-line substation the phase balance is near perfect. That is, all three (3) phases are “level” with one another in time as they travel along the power line. But get a couple of miles away from these points and the phases start to get out of synch, the phase sine waves are all at different (angular) places on the power lines.

iii. Having two (2) phase data redundancy is a good idea. But when one phase is leading or lagging the other the data packets arrive at the demodulator at different times. If you wait for both packets to be there before sending data on its way you waste time, you waste bandwidth, which is undesirable.

iv. Fast-Switching Capacitor Banks (FSCB) are used in an attempt to overcome this phase imbalance and lead/lag of data packets. But this equipment introduces problems of its own, and it’s called commutation. v. FSCB are stand-alone devices, mounted pole-top, they take their power from the power line at the pole where they are mounted. Since the electronics control circuitry both in the box on the pole and in the FSCB itself requires direct current (DC) to operate there is a requirement for a rectifier or rectifiers.

Since there is a pair of rectifiers (one for positive half cycle of sine wave, one for negative half cycle) for each of the three phases, this is referred to as a six-pulse or six-pole converter. When the control circuitry of the converter turns off one SCR (or thyristor or whatever type of rectifier is used) and turns on the other, there is an overlap period where both devices are turned on. This is because such devices don‘t really stop the current flow until the current waveform goes to zero.

Having two devices turned on at once is effectively a short circuit between the phases, which results in a very large current flow for a very short time, until the first device goes off completely. This is the commutation period, and is a synchronous process to the power frequency. As you can picture, these notches occur six times in each power frequency cycle. The ―rule‖ on the resulting harmonic currents is H = n x p +/-1, where ―n‖ is integers 1, 2, 3, etc., and ―p‖ is the number of poles (six, in this case). Hence, the dominate harmonics would be 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, and so on.‖ - Richard P. Bingham; Power Quality Engineer and Author: ―Why Only Harmonics‖: Exhibit 10


vi. These FSCB units Thyristor switching short circuit commutation also produces Reactance in the 60Hz mains power as shown in Figure 2, as evidenced in Exhibit 12, and as discussed in Exhibit 27. Exhibit 12 shows this reactance to be evident at 58.2705Hz and 63.7354Hz at 60Hz. At 50Hz mains power the reactance frequencies are a simple percentage calculation conversion, the resulting subharmonic frequency would remain the same. This reactance is also evidenced by light flicker or “jitter” in the electrical power supplied to consumers, also known as “Dirty Power”. It is also suspected, and as noted in Exhibit 27, that this could be a cause of Ventricular Fibrillation attributable to SADS (mentioned earlier).

vii. Referring once again to Figure 4 and the left power cross spectrum scan it can be seen that there is a spike at exactly 400Hz. This is an ISO calibration frequency for the FSCB units that are in use throughout the USA in particular. This specific BPL installation has been in operation for over 2 years, since 2009, and attempts are still being made to calibrate the pole-top FCSB’s. This is indicative that BPL/B-PLC installations in general do not work as advertised by BPL/B-PLC vendors.

viii. There has been only a feeble attempt made by electrical utilities globally to rectify this reactance. In the UK, for instance, 1st and 2nd Order Delta Sigma Modulators have been installed on some BPL/B-PLC FCSB sites. This simply introduces further reactance at the mains frequency and harmonics at frequencies in the 3KHz to 5KHz range as shown in Figure 5.

5.1.6 The “Last Mile” signals: There are several unlicensed frequencies used in the “Last Mile” scenario worldwide. There is also one, 956MHz, using ZigBee communications protocol, in the licensed band that is utilized exclusively in the USA and Japan. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Last_mile

i. Zigbee networks are self-forming, each node can also act as a router, so no setup or configuration is required. When a new house is built the additional node simply connects itself to the network and starts reporting usage. ZigBee, operating at 956MHz, will attempt to attach itself to any computer operating at that frequency, a very useful characteristic in the right situation.

ii. 956MHz is the operating frequency of the on-board computers utilized in Toyota vehicles. Toyota vehicles have had a slew of unexplained problems in the last 2 years, including sudden unexplained acceleration. Many people have died in the ensuing collisions; many others faced criminal charges and are doing jail time for causing them, the authorities citing driver error. Toyota vehicles are sold and are common on the roads worldwide. Toyota vehicles experienced unexplained problems, particularly sudden unexplained acceleration, only in the USA and Japan.

iii. BPL/B-PLC Last Mile uses 900MHz, 915MHZ, WiFi, meshWiFi, WiMAX, and 956MHz ZigBee frequencies; all class as “serious” microwave frequencies. Only the latter is in the licensed band, meaning that its use requires a license, and that costs money.

iv. All Smart Grid equipment is (supposed to be) designed to “sleep” when not in use, thus saving power. However, only the ZigBee protocol is designed to “wake up” when queried while “asleep”, it is, after all, designed for Smart Grid at the fastest possible data transmission speeds. v. If there is a corner that can be cut, it will be, it is human nature and accountants are running the show in this new millennia. Many countries have installed ZigBee on unlicensed frequency bands. Others have done without the “sleep” function; “Smart” equipment is permanently ON, thus defeating the main requirement of Smart Grid philosophy.

vi. After the BPL signal is “decoupled” from the power lines it is fed into a demodulator. This can be either pole mounted or attached and connected to fiber optic cables also on the poles. In both cases the demodulator also functions as a transmitting antenna. Exhibit 24 is an FCC/ARRL investigative document regarding the above described transmitters in Allentown, Pennsylvania that was released under the Freedom of Information Act. In it FCC investigators claim that although the fiber-optic mounted transmitters were emitting microwave RF in excess of FCC regulatory law requirements; this emissions “overage” was “just 3dB more”. As previously stated, a 3dB increase in power levels requires a 100% increase (doubling) in the transmissions (emissions) levels.

vii. The FCC defines Power Density tolerance as the amount of time that someone can spend in an RF transmission without suffering adverse health effects: Similar to putting your head in a bucket of water. Many of these Access BPL transmitters are less than 10 feet from people’s bedroom windows in city suburbs. FCC regulatory law requires that anyone with a RF transmitter must carry out regular Power Density testing on their equipment as part of a scheduled test routine. These test schedules are also defined by the FCC and appear in FCC ET Docket # 93-62 and OET Bulletin # 65 among other places.

viii. These pole or fiber optic mounted demodulator/transmitters reassemble the BPL, or in this case, the Access BPL signal and transmit it. As evidenced in the above paragraph, these transmissions are not measured by their owners, the electrical utilities, to ensure regulatory safety law compliance. But where is it being transmitted to?

ix. Generally, these transmissions are aimed toward an area containing the maximum number of potential customers; remember there are presently very few Access BPL customers in most countries; the electrical utilities are still trying to get their equipment working properly. These potential customers are also the electrical utility’s present customer base for power supply and will ultimately have “smart” metering and appliances. Access BPL and “smart” metering are one and the same.

x. Between these transmitters and people’s home-mounted receivers are overhead power cables. Overhead power cables are transmit/receive dipole antennas, as classified by the IEEE. Much of the transmitted BPL signal is lost to these receiving dipoles. The BPL signal travels along the power lines looking for a ground (earth) point. Evidence shows that in every case the BPL microwave RF “Last Mile” signal is literally dragged from the overhead power lines by the, so-called 40MHz, BPL emissions and from there into the electrical wiring of every building in its path.

5.1.7 Microwave Auditory Effect (MAE): One of the major physical reactions to these microwave emissions is the “Microwave Auditory Effect”. A much studied phenomena for over 40 years by the military, NASA, and various universities worldwide; many whitepapers exist covering this topic. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microwave_auditory_effect

i. Again worldwide, people have accounted of a noise that ranges from a high-pitched Banshee Wail to a mid-frequency range “disgusting gargle”. Individual accounts of the “interpretation” of this “sound” vary. However, that it accompanies, and is a result of, BPL emissions is without doubt.

ii. Here’s what Dr. Allen Frey had to say about his experiments:

The intent of this paper is to bring a new phenomenon to the attention of physiologists. Using extremely low average power densities of electromagnetic energy, the perception of sounds was induced in normal and deaf humans. The effect was induced several hundred feet from the antenna the instant the transmitter was turned on, and is a function of carrier frequency and modulation. Attempts were made to match the sounds induced by electromagnetic energy and acoustic energy. The closest match occurred when the acoustic amplifier was driven by the rf transmitter's modulator. Peak power density is a critical factor and, with acoustic noise of approximately 80 dB, a peak power density of approximately 275 mw/cm2 is needed to induce the perception at carrier frequencies of 425 mc and 1,310 mc. The average power density can be at least as low as 400 uw/cm2. The evidence for the various possible sites of electromagnetic energy sensor are discussed and locations peripheral to the cochlea are ruled out.‖ Frey, Allan H.: Human auditory systems response to modulated electromagnetic energy Cornell University, Ithaca, New York: J. Appl. Physiol. 17(4):689-692. 1962

iii. In a nutshell, here’s what researchers discovered: The MAE occurs when microwave frequencies pass through the brain and surrounding tissue. These microwaves excite hydrogen atoms contained in protein-bound (living cells) water, excitation leads to movement of the subatomic particles of which atoms consist, leading to friction and thus heat. Sound familiar? This is exactly what happens in a microwave oven, and everyone knows what they are.

iv. Heating leads to expansion of intra-cranial cells. Due to the fact that BPL microwave frequencies are on/off pulses; exactly the same as in Allen Frey’s Cornell University experiments; the water contained in these cells heats and cools rapidly. This causes the intra-cranial cells to expand and contract, heat/cool, along with the microwave pulses.

v. What Allen Frey and many other researchers concluded was that this expanding and contracting tissue “hit” the inner-ear cochlea thus inducing a “sound”. The “sound” experienced was relative to the microwave pulse train frequency. The BPL microwave emissions induced “sound” that people are experiencing is similar worldwide. It must, therefore, be at a similar frequency worldwide – BPL “Last Mile” frequency.

vi. Researchers of this effect have accepted it as fact. But, as the subjects of these experiments began to show extremely derogatory mental and emotional effects within a short time of their exposure to these microwave frequencies all further experimentation was halted. The military’s dream of utilizing the effect as a communications method to individual military personnel ended.

vii. Neither the legal system nor the FCC recognizes this physical effect. If microwaves heat your skin, then there are microwaves present; otherwise it’s a “case dismissed”.

6.0 Summary:

i. There are six (6) major emissions issues; eight (8) major entire population and eco-system detrimental and destructive reactions that will result in enormous consequences. Smart Grid, Access BPL, and B-PLC may have their up-side. They may benefit the few in major corporations around the globe that are and continue to profit enormously from their installation and operation for as long as it is allowed to continue.

ii. A far more technologically effective and economically viable solution utilizing the electricity transmission line grid topology is available which would be upgradeable as technology advances. This solution is 100% safe and data secure. Smart Grid, as it right now, is not upgradeable or data secure i.e. once it is installed as supplied, it stays that way forever, or until such time that it is ripped out and started over from scratch.

iii. All of the signs are there; all of the pieces are in place for an unprecedented global catastrophe to imminently occur. There will be a large price to pay when accountability arrives, and it will. This whole “thing” is about energy leaking from places that it was never intended to be. The responsible thing to do would be to put it in its place, a place from where it can’t escape. All it would take is a purpose-built data cable on the Grid. Now that’s what you would call a “Smart” Grid.

Figure 6: Power Spectrogram showing BPL/B-PLC emissions levels

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About the author of this paper: Victor Nixon, a decorated Army veteran, holds a M.Sc. Computer Systems (Automation) Engineering and has over 30 years global experience in SCADA systems design and installation relating to electrical power generation, distribution, and industrial use. Presently he lives in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. For further information regarding the content of this document or to request access to Cloud databased documents please use the email address below: smartgridexhibits,,,live.com

Irrefutable documented proof and data, in labelled sections, can be downloaded as Exhibits from the author’s Cloud address:

Due to the sensitivity of content, Cloud database access will be supplied on an individual “as required and necessary” basis. Contact the originator of this document for access or email your access request to: smartgridexhibits,,,live.com