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CONTRIBUTION · 3rd April 2012
Victor Nixon

Editor Introduction: Look at your stereo speakers. If you have a standard system there are wires travelling between the stereo amplifier to the speakers. These wires carry the sound developed at one source and broadcast at the other. The amplifier uses electricity to boost the sound 'amplification'.

In between almost every home and the wires of the electrical grid is now an electronic device called a smart meter, which identifies the location of all information carried by the wires entering the home and may be exiting.

To clarify; consider the fibre optics cables, which transmit millions of communications simultaneously all within the same cable are all separated and kept identified to the source. Both of these technologies, sound via wire and data via fibre, are all decades old technology. Imagine every electrical outlet being a data and sound receptor and the wire, (the grid), being the fibre optic delivery system. Imagine it being done wrong. The following is lengthy, but for those interested it is a must read.

How The New Smart Grid Will Affect Your Life

Source Direct

This document is pseudo-technical in presentation. It attempts to convey the intended purpose of the Smart Grid Initiative’s pros and cons using an understandable and comprehensible language and style.

As with all technical documents, each subject is numbered as main topic and sub-topic line items for easy reference and corroboration.

Each section contains a number of URL links to Internet articles that explain in greater detail each line item’s specific subject. These are mainly links to Wikipedia articles and are meant simply to provide further insight.

There is also a reference listing of each line item’s subject at the end of the document proper. This reference listing provides links to further, in-depth information.

Part 1: What is Smart Grid anyway?

The term Smart Grid refers to a global, all-encompassing communications system infrastructure being surreptitiously and secretly installed right now on the electrical power transmission and distribution grid.

As a result of this technology the cost of your electricity will increase by a factor of 6. Your metering charges will increase by a factor of 10. You will have “snoopware” installed on all of your appliances talking to an indoor meter that you will pay $1300 for. You will have microwave streams emitting from all of your electrical outlets 24/7. “They” know what’s best for you and decided that you did not need to be informed of all this.

1.1.1 ―A smart grid is a digitally enabled electrical grid that gathers, distributes, and acts on information about the behavior of all participants (suppliers and consumers) in order to improve the efficiency, importance, reliability, economics, and sustainability of electricity services. Smart grid policy is organized in Europe as Smart Grid European Technology Platform. Policy in the United States is described in 42 U.S.C ch. 152 subch. IX § 17381‖
42 U.S.C. ch.152 subch.IX

1.1.2 The present state of Smart Grid installation in the USA can be found by following the URL link.

1.1.3 The spectrum scans and data evidence that are included in this document are taken from spectrum analysis scans in several cities in several States in the USA, Denmark, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Some of these spectrum analysis scans are as shown, with first-hand accounts, in Exhibit 23.

1.1.4 The spectrum scans and data evidence that are included in this document can be reproduced and verified anywhere and everywhere on Earth where BPL is operational.

1.1.5 The spectrum scans and data evidence in this document were produced over the period July, 2011 through February, 2012. Total number of different computers used was eleven (11); each computer ran Windows 7 and as such had CPU speeds in excess of 4GHz and 2GB of RAM minimum. Three (3) highly-sophisticated Fast Fourier Transform-based software spectrum analysis software suites were utilized, arbitrarily chosen by the author at the time of testing. Cloud computing technology was utilized throughout this investigatory process. Less than 20 years ago the amount of computing and data processing power and capabilities used to complete this global effort would have filled the entire volume of an auditorium with no room remaining in the aisles.

Part 2: So how does it affect me?

2.0 BPL Explained

This document explains the origin of a global phenomenon known as “The Hum” in terms that can be understood by a non-technical individual. It examines and explains the Smart Grid backbone communications system; Broadband over Power Lines (BPL); its impact on the individual person from a physiological perspective. That is, the effects of BPL-derived emissions on a person’s physical and mental state.

The electrical power industry has, for more than 40 years, attempted to increase the overall throughput or transfer speeds of data signals on the overhead power lines. In the 1970’s it was Bristol, England that was the focus of attention regarding the ominous “Hum”, it is a classic example: Then followed Taos, New Mexico; Kokomo, Michigan; and a slew of other locations worldwide.

Every one of these projects was ultimately terminated as the emissions were unpredictable and widespread. The equipment was de-energized, and removed; the emissions disappeared and the “Mysterious Worldwide Hum” remained mysterious. One of the latest cases is Windsor, Ontario, just across the Rouge River from Detroit, Michigan. Their emissions and noise were blamed on railroad cars on Zug Island which have been in operation for over 100 years. Between Zug Island and Windsor is a large Smart Grid/BPL control center.

This time around, on a global scale, it appears that the copious amounts of money that can and are being made from BPL/B-PLC implementation is worth the risk of massive damage to populations (human and otherwise), the food chain, and entire ecosystems worldwide.

BPL is sometimes referred to as Broadband Power Line Communication (B-PLC), or its USA FCC (Federal Communications Commission) roll-out moniker: Access BPL.

2.1.2 Since 2006 reported incidences have been steadily growing worldwide of a persistent, unstoppable, diesel engine-type noise suddenly appearing in people’s lives. Reports from individuals around the world indicate that, at times, these emissions appear to be sufficiently powerful to shake the ground.

2.1.3 To add to these individual’s distress this noise appears to be coming from everywhere at once 24/7 with no particular direction of origin, always louder indoors. Exhaustion and many other symptoms follow seemingly endless sleepless nights.

2.1.4 The second factor causing anguish is that individuals hearing this noise find that they seem to be alone with their problem. Everyone that they ask cannot hear it.

2.1.5 Many of these people, in their frustration, contact government agencies and are told that they probably have Tinnitus and should see a medical doctor. A visit to an MD usually does not diagnose Tinnitus

2.1.6 This noise ranges in volume from a background hum through to a running truck outside your window. Many people also report symptoms of abdominal and/or chest pain accompanying this noise’s presence. There are those that also suffer from severe emotional distress manifesting itself as trepidation, revulsion, nervousness, and dread, among others. People around the globe tell of suddenly feeling exhausted when exposed to these emissions.

2.1.7 There is a correlation between sub-items 2.1.2 and 2.1.6 and human reaction to infrasound:

“Infrasonic 17 Hz tone experiment

On May 31, 2003, a team of UK researchers held a mass experiment where they exposed some 700 people to music laced with soft 17 Hz sine waves played at a level described as "near the edge of hearing", produced by an extra-long-stroke subwoofer mounted two-thirds of the way from the end of a seven-meter-long plastic sewer pipe.

The experimental concert (entitled Infrasonic) took place in the Purcell Room over the course of two performances, each consisting of four musical pieces. Two of the pieces in each concert had 17 Hz tones played underneath.

In the second concert, the pieces that were to carry a 17 Hz undertone were swapped so that test results would not focus on any specific musical piece.

The participants were not told which pieces included the low-level 17 Hz near-infrasonic tone. The presence of the tone resulted in a significant number (22%) of respondents reporting anxiety, uneasiness, extreme sorrow, nervous feelings of revulsion or fear, chills down the spine and feelings of pressure on the chest.

In presenting the evidence to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Professor Richard Wiseman said, "These results suggest that low frequency sound can cause people to have unusual experiences even though they cannot consciously detect infrasound.‖

Nowadays tech-savvy teenage pranksters know that if they use a readily-available freeware signal generator (i.e. SigJenny), playing a low-frequency (LF) sine wave centered on 17Hz through a sub-woofer, they can “trick” their friends and parents into feeling frightened and “freaked out”. Dependent on the volume of the speaker, these teens observe dramatic increases in people’s reactions even though virtually no one can actually hear the “noise”. With Smart Grid BPL-generated LF, Power Companies are “freaking out” entire populations.

2.1.8 Occurrences of this hum noise from individuals and small geo-physically localized groups have become relatively common during the last 2 years worldwide, particularly in the USA and Canada. Those that have been investigated on an individual basis are not correlated to other similar occurrences. All cases have been given a different reason for the causation or no explanation at all.

2.1.9 In the following text a full explanation is given.

Part 3: So what’s happening here?
(Sorry about this, but we need to get technical for a couple of paragraphs)

3.0 Overview

Smart Grid technology is based on digital communication using the electrical power transmission line grid as the backbone communication system. Utilities have been, for decades, communicating with their equipment that is attached to the grid at very-slow data transmission rates when compared to the transmission speeds that computers are capable of communicating today. The successful implementation of the entire Smart Grid initiative meant that the speed of the data transmission through/over the electricity transmission line grid had to increase by many orders of magnitude – It needed to operate hundreds of millions of times faster than it was/is presently operating.

3.1.1 “Broadband over power lines (BPL) is a method of power line communication that allows relatively high speed digital data transmission over the public electric power distribution wiring. BPL uses different technologies from other forms of power-line communications to provide high-rate communication over long distances. BPL uses parts of the radio spectrum allocated to other over-the-air communication services. Interference to, and from, these services is a limiting factor in the introduction of BPL systems.
While some have been in widespread use for a decade, integrated circuits implementing one standard were introduced in May 2011.‖

3.2 The present deployment of Broadband over Power Lines (BPL), also termed Broadband Power Line Communications (B-PLC) or Access BPL is based on a form of Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK).

3.2.1 The particular type of FSK used in this BPL/B-PLC deployment is termed Digitally-Encoded Phase-Shift Keying.

3.2.2 Access BPL appears from research to use at least 10-bits to generate a digitally-encoded phase-shift keying signal utilizing the frequencies of 11.719Hz through 23988Hz in 11.719Hz increments; 10-bits provide 2048 separate and overlaid frequency “dots”. By adding a single bit this frequency “dot” count doubles to 4096, in this BPL mode the “dot” frequency “start point” is 5.8594Hz, increasing to 23988Hz in increments of that frequency. The signal waveform shown in Figure 1 is produced.

3.2.3 Using the algorithm that generated the waveform in Figure 1 and extending the bit count by just 4 bits to 16 bits, an additional 61,440 frequency “dots” would be generated. This would make this waveform persistently capable of passing through any and all inductive and capacitive element utilized on the electricity transmission grid.

3.2.4 The harmonics, interharmonics and consequent subharmonics generated increase linearly with each increase in this waveform’s frequency “dot” overlay. The subharmonics, for instance, would all appear in the
3.3 Access-BPL is based on 40MHz transmission of the signal in 3.2.2. In practice transmission speeds of 40MHz are not realized due to actual physical properties of the power lines and signal reflection, loss, and attenuation (scattering). More often than not 30MHz is BPL’s real transmission speed.

Figure 1: X-Y Plot of BPL Signal Frequencies

3.3.1 Fact: Generally BPL and DSL-labeled power line derived Internet access is offered by BPL ISP’s at 500kbs (kilobits/sec). Rule of thumb – Actual data speeds are the transmission speed divided by 60.

3.4 There are 2 main applications, or methods, that are used to get this signal to where it needs to be. Generally speaking the choice of method used is based on population density in a given area.

3.4.1 Let’s say that for each installation of BPL requires a paying customer base of 100 for it to be economically viable. Let’s assume that 1% of a population in a BPL installation area signs up for Internet access. Given that math, there would need to be 10,000 homes/businesses within a BPL transmission area.

3.4.2 In a city suburb where there are thousands of potential customers in a relatively small area with overhead power lines following the roadways, the above figure is easily achievable. In this case the signal is “injected” into the overhead power lines at the local substation.

3.4.3 In a rural area where 10,000 potential customers are scattered over, perhaps, 100’s of square miles the method used is hybrid wireless/wired. A purpose-built mast with purpose-built transmitter dishes, usually in an existing cell-phone tower/mast installation, sends the BPL signal to wireless receivers (network gateways) which are mounted on power line poles or existing buildings. These wireless receivers are wire connected to the nearest power line.

The size (power) of the transmission dishes depends on the distance that the signal has to cover to reach the required number of potential customers. Many of these installations can be seen on top of a hill with up to 10 double-transmitter dish masts arranged in circular fashion. The transmitter dishes are black, inside-out dishes – Boob Dishes. If you are one of those people unlucky enough to be able to hear these transmissions, you can hear these Boob Dishes from 10 miles away.

3.5 So the Access BPL signal is in the power line, how does it get into my house?
It’s called “The Last Mile”. There are demodulator boxes that reverse the procedure explained in 3.4.3. A connection is made onto the power line local to an Access BPL customer’s property and taken into a demodulator box. You’ve seen them on power line poles and ignored them as just another “something on the pole”. In the States they are generally beige 15 inch cubes with red and green lights on their right side. The electronics inside these boxes wirelessly transmit 956MHz Access BPL signals, using a protocol (language) called ZigBee, to a receiver box on/in your home that is connected to your electrical wiring.

To solve the problem of providing enhanced services over the last mile, some firms have been mixing networks for decades. One example is Fixed Wireless Access, where a wireless network is used instead of wires to connect a stationary terminal to the wireline network. Various solutions are being developed which are seen as an alternative to the "last mile" of standard incumbent local exchange carriers: these include WiMAX and BPL (Broadband over Power Line) applications.

Part 4: Internet access? Is that it?
4.0 The Whole Story

4.1 You guessed it.
There is more to this “thing” than just Internet access. Access BPL is small change; a “something” to partly and temporarily fund the on-going Smart Grid effort. Here we take a look at all of the aspects of Smart Grid application.

4.1.1 Automatic Meter Reading (AMR): You may have heard of “smart” meters. Their mandatory installation is causing entire communities to take out lawsuits against their respective Power Companies. But that’s all the attention it’s getting, local complaints regarding a global, and in the USA, nationwide, matter. Why aren’t national newspapers and TV stations taking up the issue? More importantly, why is it that government agencies appear to be ignoring the probable health concerns entirely?

The reason is because the present “smart” meters serve as a diversion from the real issues - More on that later.

The present digital meters that people are discovering on their homes are a “test run” for the real thing. They are cheap $3 pieces of junk, made in China, and not tested to meet any standards specifications; as such these meters frequently overheat and burst into flames. These digital meters are arranged along a BPL-carrying power line in “test” configuration. A few thousand installed at designed intervals along, perhaps, a two hundred mile stretch of power line. You may have heard that electrical utility companies are experiencing problems getting these, meshWiFi configured; “smart” meters to work as they should - All part of the overall Smart Grid plan.

The real “Smart Meters” are on their way, and, as the BTO song goes, “You Ain’t Seen Nothin’ Yet.”

Automatic meter reading, or AMR, is the technology of automatically collecting consumption, diagnostic, and status data from water metering or energy metering devices (gas, electric) and transferring that data to a central database for billing, troubleshooting, and analyzing. This technology mainly saves utility providers the expense of periodic trips to each physical location to read a meter.

4.1.2 “Smart” technology in “smart” appliances:
Now we’re getting down to it. Remember when Records disappeared from music stores overnight and Compact Cassette Tapes took their place? (BTW – You’re old if you do!) Remember when cassette tapes disappeared in the same fashion and music CD’s took their place? VHS tapes to DVD’s?

The next big disappearance items are “dumb” appliances.

Your fridge wants to start up – It asks the living-area, wall-mounted “Smart Meter” if it can turn on now or wait 5 minutes and get electricity 0.02 cents per Kilowatt/Hour cheaper. The “smart” meter checks with the Power Company computers and is told to wait. Turns out this saves you 2/10 of one cent.

You decide to get a new fridge. You are surprised to discover that the price has tripled since you last looked. The store assistant informs you that your new fridge is “Smart Appliance” equipped. A 2 cent silicon chip added to the circuitry that also adds $1200 to the price tag. Does this sound dumb to you? Not if you’re an appliance manufacturer it doesn’t. Think this is pie-in-the-sky? Take a look at this URL:

4.1.3 If you scrolled through the Smart Grid Wikipedia article you’ll know that:

Smart energy demand describes the energy user component of the smart grid. It goes beyond and means much more than even energy efficiency and demand response combined. Smart energy demand is what delivers the majority of smart meter and smart grid benefits.

Smart energy demand is a broad concept. It includes any energy-user actions to:

• Enhancement of reliability

• reduce peak demand

• shift usage to off-peak hours

• lower total energy consumption

• actively manage electric vehicle charging

• actively manage other usage to respond to solar, wind, and other renewable resources

• buy more efficient appliances and equipment over time based on a better understanding of how energy is used by each appliance or item of equipment.

All of these actions minimize adverse impacts on electricity grids and maximize utility and, as a result, consumer savings. Smart Energy Demand mechanisms and tactics include:

• smart meters

• dynamic pricing

• smart thermostats and smart appliances

• automated control of equipment

• real-time and next day energy information feedback to electricity users

• usage by appliance data

• scheduling and control of loads such as electric vehicle chargers, home area networks (HANs), and others.

Now, if you scrutinize each point you will immediately notice that all are pretty flimsy excuses for spending a couple of Trillion dollars in the USA alone on untried and untested equipment on an old and dilapidated machine (the electricity transmission and distribution grid).

There is no real return on Smart Grid. At the end of the day it will be the consumer that foots the bill – As usual.

This entire Smart Grid installation is about nothing more than money in the pockets of “them” – The major corporations. This will occur while the rest of us have to deal with the fallout of this poorly engineered and deadly experimental monstrosity.

Ultimately, Smart Grid and its BPL backbone communication system will get shut down and the equipment removed. Meanwhile it is killing people and animals around the globe; ruining millions of lives, and devastating ecosystems. But “they” will get to keep the money.

Part 5: So what are these emissions?

5.0 BPL-Derived Emissions Explained

Power lines and their associated distribution equipment (substations, etc.) were designed to deliver Alternating Current (AC) electricity from the generating station to the end user. They were first installed during the 1930’s under the Electricity Act in many countries. Much of the original equipment is still in use; most (85%) is at least 60 years old. All electrical power distribution and transmission equipment consists of non-insulated, bare metal conductors.

Signal and/or communication transmission cables are purpose built, insulated, dielectric-shielded, and grounded twisted-pair cables. They may be single pair or multi-pair (i.e. 19 pairs in one overall insulated cable is common).

Twisted pair: This is intended to stop cross-talk between the wires of each signal-carrying pair.

Grounded: This is a single, uninsulated wire that is twisted around and along each signal twisted pair. Its purpose is to drain any cross-talk signal that is generated. It is connected at one end only, usually to the ground point (chassis) on the master device.

Dielectric Shield: This is an aluminium or Mylar/aluminium hybrid material and covers each signal pair along its length. It has 2 purposes in Transverse Magnetic (TM) Mode – The transfer mode of all data signals. This shield stops the data leaking/radiating away from the signal cable. It also functions as a “get back in there” medium to return “escaped” signal energy back to where it came from.

Insulated: Each wire of each twisted pair is insulated. There is an overall insulating sheath. This stops shorting between each wire and on anything metal the cable may touch.

Most data cables also include a ferrite core near the “receiver” end of the cable. This serves 2 purposes: To stop errant and unintended RF signals and to “catch” and dissipate signal energy reflections due to impedance mismatch.

Purpose-built data transmission/signal carrying cables are designed to stop any leakage of signal energy that may occur. Bare metal, electricity transmission and distribution cables and equipment were not intended or designed to carry data transmissions/signal energy. Doing so results in large signal energy leakage (emissions) and other unwanted, but apparently collaterally acceptable, occurrences.

To cut a long story short; AC electricity is magnet generated and is comprised of electrons that are forced to move along the conductive elements of the electricity grid (overhead cables, transformer substations, etc.). These AC electron “clumps” travel along the outside of the conductor in sine wave configuration at (theoretically) the speed of light in a vacuum – 186,000 miles per second. Therefore, at 60Hz a single AC sine wave on the power line is just over 3083 miles long and would travel around the Earth 8 times in one second. Taking this a step further, if you wired a light bulb in San Francisco to a switch in Manhattan (2582 miles); flick the switch in NY for light in CA around 8 milliseconds (8/1000sec) later.

The above paragraph was simply to demonstrate what we are dealing with. Everything that we discuss from here on in is occurring at the speed of light. The only exceptions to that statement are audible sonic waves, which occur as a direct result of energy releases/emissions from electricity grid equipment. Sonic, or sound, wave energy pushes air in the atmosphere, increasing the pressure slightly where this energy release is taking place. These pressure waves travel at the speed of sound; in dry air at 68°F (20°C), the speed of sound is 768mph (1,236km/hr); Air pressure reaches your ears and vibrates your eardrums, causing you to hear a sound associated with the frequency of the sonic/sound waves.

The air pressure changes caused by energy releases can be measured; is termed Sound Pressure Level (SPL), and is measured in units called Decibels (dB). The loudness (volume) of a sound is “weighted” to give a closer association to human hearing capabilities. There are only 2 weighting factors used nowadays, the “A” and “C” weighting factors. A-weighting is generally used for the “normal” range of hearing. C-weighting is used for the low-end of hearing-range frequency spectrum, the deep-bass frequencies. Hearing response in the C-range is flat, that is, over the C-range of frequencies the sound that you would hear stays the same even though the frequency changes. It is for this very reason that BPL emissions “noise” appears to be the same worldwide – A running diesel engine.

Decibels are a measurement unit of energy, a given decibel measurement sample can therefore be mathematically calculated back to the amount of energy that was required to make the decibel measurement sample in question.

dBm is power relative to 1mW (milliwatt) 1 Watt or 30 dBm. 10*log(1/0.001)

Therefore: 100W = 20dB = 50dBm 10W = 10 dB = 40dBm 4W = 6dB = 36dBm The decibel scale is logarithmic; for a 3dB increase energy/power would need to double. For every 10dB increase, power has to be increased by a factor of 10. By the same token; when a communications signal is said to have reached its -3dB point it has lost half of its original transmission power.

For a dB-Power crash course:

Figure 2 shows a Power Spectrum Scan taken on January 11, 2012 in the USA. We will be referring to its content throughout this section. This scan is typical of power spectrum scans wherever BPL is installed and operational worldwide. This 60Hz mains scan shows dB level, and is measured using Fast Fourier Transform techniques over the officially recognized 10 second period at a sampling rate of 44,100Hz. What this means is that the graph shows the average dB levels of a set of 441,000 samples across the power spectrum during an arbitrarily chosen 10 second time period. The base line of the plot is 10dB, plotted against its relevant frequency in Hertz. With a 50Hz mains supply the mains peak would be at 50Hz and the remaining peaks frequency-shifted left slightly. Notice the peaks, the spikes; they are all in relevant positions compared to the BPL signal waveform in Figure 1.
Comment by R1chard Jenn1ss on 5th April 2012

Some information here:

I would think that to do BPL an organization would require a license or an approval.
Potentially the CRTC would be involved.
I don't think it's that simple to implement to be honest.

It is easier to implement smart meters which use existing infrastructures and existing licenses and existing titles on land... (and so on...) than to implement BPL.
Why Smart _____?
Comment by R1chard Jenn1ss on 4th April 2012

"Smart Grid" as defined in this article is not the same thing as "Smart meters"

We've gone from:
1 Television set households to several.
1 Computer to several.
Soon electric cars...

Do you see the trend that Society is using more and more electricity?

There will be "smart appliances" that will communicate with your meter to operate at preferred times as an example.
The future is to balance the demand to production.
Example: Start the dryer when the $ for electricity is low.

As for BPL... I would check with Industry Canada.
Mr. Nixon! I understand!
Comment by Janice Robinson on 4th April 2012
I am an artsy-fartsy person who struggled through my Science and Mathematics necessities in highschool and university. Initially, I intended to ignore your article, thinking myself too handicapped to follow along and understand it. But I did! Thankyou very much. You are a good teacher.

A blogger on the CBC News website goes by the pseudonom "Defeated," and disrespects us fellow humans by referring to us all as "Sheeple." Many other CBC "commenters" have taken up the practice of referring to Canadians as "Sheeple" also....myself included. After reading your article, am I beginning to understand why whales commit suicide by beaching themselves? It appears there's nothing we can do about all this.
BPL in Terrace? Not yet
Comment by Terrace Daily on 4th April 2012
The forced implementation of Smart meters by Accenture, the new virtual USA owners of BC Hydro, is simply laying the groundwork for this system. BPL (Broadband over Power Lines) will soon be the norm.

As the NTL (Northwest Transmission Line) is completed with a connection through to SE Alaska the preparation will be completed.

Why do we now have Smart Meters? This is the untold answer. It is Province wide. Just because Terrace doesn't, at this time, have BPL means nothing to the big picture of why.

It is also possibly a very good plan, a great idea for better communication systems, but currently it is being done wrong, as this article demonstrates.
BPL in Terrace? No.
Comment by R1chard Jenn1ss on 4th April 2012

We don't have BPL in Terrace.
As the article mentions "smart grid" this is not in Terrace nor is this an aspect of "smart meters"

This article doesn't serve any benefit to Terracites other than to add confusion and or hysteria to the non-technical folk.